Researchers have unraveled the Q10 antioxidant mechanism.
How does this work on the cellular level?

Free radical attack on cells membrane

Exposure to X-rays, cigarette smoke, air pollution, and industrial chemicals produce free radicals. These free radicals will steal an electron from the membrane of the first cell they encounter. This damages the cell and can rapidly spread to neighboring cells. The damage arising is often referred to as oxidative stress.

A free radical seeks an electron and steals it from the cell plasma membrane
A  free radical seeks an electron and steals it from the cell plasma membrane
One free radical can damage the cell membrane and start a chain reaction of free radical activity
This damages the cell membrane and starts a chain reaction of free radical activity

Q10 antioxidant science and documentation

Q10 in the Ubiquinol form is a mighty fat-soluble antioxidant. It protects mitochondrial membranes, cell membranes, and LDL-cholesterol from oxidative damage. When LDL is oxidized, Q10 is the first antioxidant consumed. Q10 can protect membrane proteins and mitochondrial DNA from the oxidative damage that follows lipid oxidation.

Q10 antioxidant science shows that Q10 protects the heart
Q10 antioxidant protects and strengthens your heart

Q10 is our only bodily synthesized lipid-soluble antioxidant. It is present in all membranes and exceeds both in the amount and efficiency other antioxidants. In order to act as an antioxidant Q10 must be in the ubiquinol state. Q10 also protects proteins and DNA. Mainly because of its close localization to the oxidative events. But also because of the effective regeneration of Q10 to its anti-oxidant form (ubiquinol) by continuous reduction at all locations (Bentinger 2007). Each Q10 molecule continuously goes through oxidation-reduction cycles. As it accepts electrons, it becomes reduced. As it gives up electrons, it becomes oxidized.

Oral Q10 supplements significantly increase concentrations of ubiquinol-Q10 in the plasma and in LDL-cholesterol (Mohr 1992).

Moreover, in synergy with these reductases, Q10 antioxidant regenerates antioxidants like vitamin C and vitamin E.

Next to cellular energy production, this is a second important mechanism of how Q10 is critical for good health.

The continuous switch of Q10 to its antioxidant form and back